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Caesar went on to serve in several other key government positions. In 67 B. Their marriage lasted just a few years, and in 62 B. Caesar maintained his alliance with Pompey, which enabled him to get elected as consul, a powerful government position, in 59 B. The same year, Caesar wed Calpurnia, a teenager to whom he remained married for the rest of his life. The strategic political alliance among Caesar, Pompey and Crassus came to be known as the First Triumvirate.

For Caesar, the First Triumvirate partnership was the perfect springboard to greater domination. Crassus, a leader known as the richest man in Roman history, offered Caesar financial and political support that proved to be instrumental in his rise to power. Crassus and Pompey, however, were intense rivals.

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Once again, Caesar displayed his abilities as a negotiator, earning the trust of both Crassus and Pompey and convincing them they'd be better suited as allies than as enemies. In a controversial move, Caesar tried to pay off Pompey's soldiers by granting them public lands.

Julius Caesar: A Roman Colossus

Caesar hired some of Pompey's soldiers to stage a riot. In the midst of all the chaos, he got his way. Not long after, Caesar secured the governorship of Gaul modern-day France and Belgium. This allowed him to build a bigger military and begin the kind of campaigns that would cement his status as one of Rome's all-time great leaders.

Between 58 and 50 B. As he expanded his reach, Caesar was ruthless with his enemies. In one instance he waited until his opponent's water supply had dried up, then ordered the hands of all the remaining survivors be cut off. All the while, he was mindful of the political scene back home in Rome, hiring key political agents to act on his behalf.

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Meanwhile, Crassus still had never completely overcome his disdain for Pompey. The three leaders patched things up temporarily in 56 B. Three years later, however, Crassus was killed in a battle in Syria. Around this time, Pompey—his old suspicions about Caesar's rise reignited—commanded that Caesar disband his army and return to Rome as a private citizen. Rather than submit to Pompey's command, on January 10, 49 B.

As Pompey further aligned himself with nobility, who increasingly saw Caesar as a national threat, civil war between the two leaders proved to be inevitable. Pompey fled Rome and eventually landed in Greece, where his troops were defeated by Caesar's legions. By late 48 B. The Egyptians, however, knew of Pompey's defeats and believed the gods favored Caesar: Pompey was assassinated as soon as he stepped ashore in Egypt.

Caesar claimed to be outraged over Pompey's murder. After having Pompey's assassins put to death, he met with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra. Upon his triumphant return to Rome, Caesar was hailed as the father of his country and made dictator for life. Studying Julius Caesar? Caesar returns from war, all-conquering, but mutiny is rumbling through the corridors of power. Famous quotes. In This Section. The plot We tell the story of Shakespeare's political thriller from the conspiracy against Caesar to his assassination and the defeat of his conspirators.

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Biography of Julius Caesar

He switches sides over to the conservative side. So now, instead of being one of Julius Caesar's allies, he becomes one of his opponents. And so Julius Caesar, he's victorious, he's able to conquer these powerful Gallic tribes. Plutarch, according to him, Julius Caesar's legions fought on the order of three million Gauls, I don't know if those numbers are exaggerations, they sound like they might be a little bit of one, of which one million were killed and one million were enslaved, cities were destroyed, tribes were overrun; and those might be exaggerations, they probably were, but it tells you the scope of what Julius Caesar did when he took over Gaul.


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So, he's already this very charismatic figure, he was Consul, but he's a controversial figure in the Senate. He has these more populist tendencies, while there's a lot of these conservatives in the Senate.

Julius Caesar—facts and information

The First Triumvirate breaks, Pompey switched sides, he's able to take over Gaul, and so you can imagine as he is now victorious, the Senators are worried. They're like, this guy, if he comes back to Rome, he might have too much power, and he might have too much power to do the things that we, especially the conservatives, don't want him to do. This land redistribution, and all of the things like that. Now, Julius Caesar's thinking to himself, wait, I just did all of this.


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  • These people are afraid of me, if I go without my title, without my army, who knows what they're gonna do to me when I go back to Rome. So he says, I either go back without my armies, or I go with my armies. And so, he decides to do the latter, he takes his armies, and he crosses the Rubicon River. Now, crossing the Rubicon, I'm gonna write this down, Crossing the Rubicon, is now a phrase that we have in our culture that means you've gone past the point of no return. There's a famous quote ascribed to Julius Caesar once he crossed the Rubicon, as the die has been cast, it's the point of no return.

    And this was a really big deal, because it was illegal for a governor general, a Pro Consul, to take their legions outside of territories they governed, and this wasn't just any region, he was taking it into the Italian peninsula, he was taking it to Rome.


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    So this was very, very, very illegal. So the Senators weren't happy about this, so they said "Hey Pompey, you have to go face "your former ally, Julius Caesar.